BAGBANI


 

Grapes Cultivation

Grapes can be grown worldwide in climatic zones ranging from temperate to tropical locations. Grapes grow best under long, hot, dry rainless summer months with adequate sunshine. The cold months of winter should be around 10-15˚ C to induce dormancy in the vine.s

 

Some varieties like the Perlette which is an early ripening variety require lot of sunshine. Dry weather during the flowering, fruit development and maturity is essential for the production of high quality grapes. Early rains results in splitting of the grape berries. Long duration of moist weather at the ripening stage favour growth of fungal diseases.

SOIL REQUIREMENT

The ideal soil for grape cultivation is sandy loam, well drained, fairly fertile with lots of organic matter. Salt affected, nematode infested and water logged soils are not recommended for grape cultivation.

 

RECOMMENDED VARITIES

The recommended verities are as under:

 

PERLETTE

This variety is most suited to our climate. It has seedless firm, crisp, juicy and light amber coloured berries and the bunch is medium to large in size. The fruit ripens in the first week of June and the average yield is 25 Kg per vine.

 

BEAUTY SEEDLESS

This variety is suitable for warmer locations. The berry is seedless, medium, bluish black in colour. The keeping quality is very low. The fruit ripens in the first week of June and the average yield is 25 Kg per vine.

 

FLAME SEEDLESS

This variety can be grown in most locations but are more suitable in places which receive late rains. The bunch is medium and well filled. The berries are seedless, firm, crisp, light purple in colour at maturity. For obtaining uniform colour treat the bunch with a spray of 400 PPM OF “ETHEPHON” the time the fruit commences to get the coilour. The average yield is 27 Kg per vine

Besides the above varietise we have Thompson Seedless and the Sultanas

PROPAGATION

The best cuttings are from the middle portion of one year old canes. The cuttings should be selected during December to January from vines which are disease free and have no attach of insects and nematodes.

 

The cuttings should be 30-40 cm long and have a diameter of about 0.50 cm. Ensure that it has 3-4 buds. The basal cut should be 2-3 cm below the node and straight. The top cut should be slanting and 2-3 cm above the node. The cuttings should be planted in February in well prepared beds. Keep one third portion of the cutting above the ground and the burry the remaining two thirds into the soil,

 

PLANTING

The cuttings would take about 2-3 months for proper root formation. These cutting are ready by December and should be for transplanted in to the fields between middle of January to first fortnight of February before they start sprouting. Dig pits 1 x 1 meter and fill these with 50 Kg farmyard manure mixed with the soil. Apply water for a few days. Then apply 5 ML Chlorpyriphos 20 EC mixed in 2 Kg of the soil to each pit to avoid damage by the white ants. The recommended planting distance is 3 x 3 meter.

 

TRAINING AND PRUNING

The vines should be trained on Bower System. The lower vine stem up to the height of the bower should be kept as a single stem by pinching he axillary shoots on the trunk of the vine up to 15 cm below the level bower. Select two laterals at the top and train them to grow at opposite direction. They are the primary arms. Allow these arms to grow three pairs each in the opposite direction on the wire. These are the secondary arms. The length of the primary and the secondary arms should be kept at maximum length of 1.5-4.00 meters. This is important since to much wood is not good for the development of fruiting canes.

 

Pruning is best carried out from mid January to the first week of February as the vines are still in the dormant stage.

In case some of the vines are badly trained earlier, these can be retrained by removing the faulty limbs.

In case of old woody vines, cut the vine up to ground level during the dormant season but ensure that you retain one shoot emerging from the vine near the ground level. This single shoot is then trained just like the a new plant.

 

The recommended pruning practice is as under:

Variety

Planting Distance (Meters)

Training System

Number of canes per vine

Number of buds per cane

Perlette

3 x 3

Bower

60-80

4

Beauty Seedless

3 x 3

Bower

60-80

4

Flame Seedless

3 x 3

Bower

60-80

4

 MANURE AND FERTILISERS

 In case of the new planted vines apply 60 gm urea and 125 gm muriate of  Potash   

 In April and repeat the same dose again in June.

 The recommended doses for the older plants is given below

Age of the plant (year)

Farmyard Manure (Kg)

Urea (Kg)

Single Super Phosphate (Kg)

Muriate of Potash (Kg)

1

20

0.400

15

0.250

2

35

0.500

25

0.350

3

50

0.600

35

0.500

4

65

0.800

40

0.650

5 and above

80

1.000

45

0.800

 

The full quantity of Farmyard Manure and Superphosphate along with half the quantity of Urea and Muriate of Potash after the pruning. The balance quantity should be applied in April after the fruit setting. Do not exceed the fertiliser application since this results in excessive vegetative growth and lower yield.

APPLICATION OF WATER

 

Water application

Number of times

After pruning in the last week of February

 Once

First week of March

Once

After fruit setting till 1 week of May

With 10 days interval

Rest of May

Weekly.

June

With 3-4 days interval.

July to October

Only if there is a prolonged dry spell

November to January

Once if the soil is observed to be dry

PLANT PROTECTION

Pests

 

Control application.

Grape vine Thrips

Spray 5 ml Malathion 50 EC in 5 liters of water per vine before flowering and again after fruit setting.

Hopper

Spray0.05 Kg of Hexavin 50 WP in 5 liters of water per vine

Leaf Roller

Spray 5 ml Thiodan 35 EC (Endosulfan or 5 ml Malathion  in 5 Liters of water as soon as the attack begins.

Defoliating Beetle

Spray in the evening 0.05 kg Hexvain 50 WP (carbaryal) in 5 liter water as soon as the damage starts. Repeat the spray after 5-6 days in case the damage continues.

Yellow and Red Wasps

Burn or smoke the wasp nests in hedges, trees etc. at sunset.

 

 

Diseases

Control application

Anthracnose or Die-back

Prune the shoots and canes during January-February and give one spray of Bordeaux Mixture.

Cercospora Leaf Spot

Same as above.

 

Downy Mildew

Same as above with one additional spray in mid September.

Foot Rot or Collar Rot

Before planting the cuttings it should be dipped in 0.20 percent Ziram suspencion (100 gm in 50 ml water) and the soil in the pit should be drenched with 0.40 percent Captan (4 gm in 1 liter water) per pit.

Powdery Mildew

Spray the vines with 0.25 percent Wetable Sulphur (25 gm in 5 liter of water per vine.

Rotting Berries

Thinning of the branches to allow sunlight to penetrate. During June spray the grape vines with 0.20 percent Ziram (10 gm in 5 liter water per vine) at 7 days interval. Stop this a week before harvesting.

WEED CONTROL

Weeds before emergence can be controlled with an application of Hexuron 80 WP (Diuron) 1.2 Kg per acre in the first fortnight of March after the soil has been dug up properly. Post emergence weeds can be eliminated by applying a spray of Glycel 41 SL (Glyphosphate) or Gramaxone 24 WSC (Paraquat) 1.6 liters per acre in 200 liters of water.

 

QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF GRAPES

The quality of grapes can be improved as under:

  1. Thinning of flowers buds a week before flowering. Leave about 100-120 flowering buds per panicle.
  2. When the berry size is 4 mm, girdle the vine by removing a 4 mm wide ring of the bark from the main stem and dip the clusters in 40 ppm GA. While girdling ensure that the wood is not injured and also that no bark remains attached to the wood. Prepare the 40 ppm GA solution by dissolving 1 gm of it in 50 ml of ethyl alcohol and then increase the volume to 25 liters ow clean water.
  3. Give a second treatment of GA after seven days.
  4. The field should have sufficient moisture during girdling and for the next three weeks.
  5. The crop must be harvested once the TSS content has reached the requisite level.
  6. Apply foliar spray of Potassium Sulphate  15 percent one week after fruit setting, followed by a second spray at colour break stage. This will improve the quality as well as the colour.

   

Make a Free Website with Yola.